Everton boss Silva makes Jagielka decisionby Paul Vegas10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveEverton boss Marco Silva insists he doesn’t want to lose club captain Phil Jagielka.He has only made two appearances this season and is out of contract at the end of the year.But Silva said: “It is not something in my mind for next month (to let him go). “It is not on my mind to even think about it.” About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say
About the authorPaul VegasShare the loveHave your say Klopp defends Liverpool players after Wolves FA Cup defeat: Did I expect more?by Paul Vegas10 months agoSend to a friendShare the loveLiverpool boss Jurgen Klopp defended his players after they were beaten by Wolves in last night’s FA Cup third round tie.Klopp made nine changes from the team which were beaten at Manchester City on Thursday.The German stated, “All these things that came out are really my responsibility, so it’s about rhythm. Of course, you know they have rhythm. Div (Origi), can he have rhythm? No, not really. Daniel (Sturridge), maybe a bit more. Alberto (Moreno), no, no rhythm. “That of course doesn’t help footballers against a [tough] opponent. We played Wolves here two or three weeks ago and they are really strong. We won, yes, but we knew it was really tough here. Now we played today, they didn’t change a lot – if they changed something – so that’s not easy.”Do I expect? I always expect a lot more from the players. Do I think they could have delivered [more] today? I am not 100 per cent sure. It’s not my job to say now, ‘that was not good enough, that was not good enough’ because I know they can do much better. I changed a lot because I thought we had to, not because I wanted to and to say, ‘come on, let’s have a look at how that works’ because it was clear Wolves would not change a lot. “The problem is, we played a similar line-up and had three tough games in the last couple of weeks, so it was clear we had to change. That’s it, that’s all.”
Cover your eyes, Miami fans. It appears the Hurricanes’ football team could be on the verge of losing a recruit. Isaiah Johnson, a three-star wide receiver in the 2016 class, has been committed to Miami since mid-February. The 6-foot-3, 198-pound prospect recently received a scholarship offer from Florida, though, and he seems to like the Gators very much. The Palm Beach Gardens native visited Florida’s Gainesville campus today. He says he “felt at home.” Felt at home today pic.twitter.com/kZt1Eob9MK— Bigplayzay2⃣1⃣ (@ZayLive21) March 14, 2015That’s, obviously, not a great look for Miami. Johnson is rated the No. 164 wide receiver in the country by 247 Sports.
TORONTO – Manulife Financial Corp. recorded a second-quarter profit of $1.26 billion, a slight increase from the same period last year.Net income attributable to shareholders was up from the $1.25 billion in the quarter ending June 30 last year, while earnings were 61 cents per common share for both quarters.Earnings per share were slightly below the 62 cents expected by analysts, according to Thomson Reuters Eikon.Core earnings were up in its Canada, U.S. and global wealth and asset management divisions, while earnings slipped in Asia.Restructuring charges related to its downsizing as part of a digital strategy shift came in at $200 million for the quarter.The company said in June it will cut 700 jobs over the next 18 months as part of a streamlining of operations.
“Reasons come from a sustainability perspective and the fact that when you look at landfills and the amount of bags that blow around at times and the challenges associated with plastic bags from an environmental perspective,” said Barry.Barry added that Council is only in the preliminary phase and much discussion is still needed before any decision can be made. FORT NELSON, B.C. – Fort Nelson is considering banning plastic shopping bags.In a council meeting on July 9th, a resolution was passed which gave Council a 90-day window to decide if they would ban plastic bags.According to the Fort Nelson’s Chief Administrative Officer Scott Barry, the reason behind the potential ban is the challenge plastic bags create from an environmental aspect.
GRANDE PRAIRIE, A.B. – Grande Prairie RCMP say they have been responding to 20 reports of battery thefts in the Grande Prairie Area.According to RCMP, the batteries have been stolen from holiday trailers.RCMP would like to advise the public that these types of thefts are occurring. Police say they continue to investigate these incidents and encourage the public to report any suspicious activity in your neighbourhood.To help prevent theft, the RCMP are reminding owners to take the necessary precautions, such as implementing the use of security locks.If you have any information about these incidents, you are being asked to contact the Grande Prairie RCMP at 780-830-5700 or CrimeStoppers at 1-800-222-TIPS.
New Delhi: India speedster Ishant Sharma believes his IPL franchise Delhi Capitals has one of the best bowling attacks for the upcoming edition of the event. The Delhi Capitals boast of a perfect combination of fast and spin bowlers with the likes of New Zealand pacer Trent Boult and Kagiso Rabada in their side, according to Ishant. “Our team has picked up some great bowling options in the squad and with the likes of Trent Boult and Kagiso Rabada also in the team. I think we have one of the best bowling line-ups this time. We have some very good all-rounders along with great spinners, which shall help us in restricting teams from scoring freely,” Ishant said. Also Read – Puducherry on top after 8-wkt win over ChandigarhTalking about his goals, the Indian pacer said he is eager to take more wickets in the IPL, starting March 23. “I feel there is a huge ambition for me this season. I am very focused on taking more wickets throughout the tournament instead of just bowling well. “Of course, taking wickets depends on how well you bowl, but the most important thing is that you use your good performance by helping the team in taking important wickets,” said the 30-year-old. Also Read – Vijender’s next fight on Nov 22, opponent to be announced laterIshant, who has taken 58 wickets with an economy of 8.2 in his IPL career, believes that his team has a great blend of pacers and spinners in the squad. Speaking on his return to Delhi, Ishant said he is extremely happy to represent his home city in the IPL. “I have played for different teams in the IPL but it makes me immensely happy to be able to represent Delhi Capitals this season. Being a Delhi boy, it is a great chance for me to represent my home side and my most important target is to make the Capitals win the coveted title,” said the lanky bowler.
Gurugram: At around 7:30 am Virat Kohli voted in Pine Crest school situated in DLF Phase -1 area. Not only Kohli but even Yuvraj Singh another famous cricketer has his residence in the same ward of Gurugram as that of Kohli.A society where creme-ala -creme of not only Gurugram but the country resides, the polling booth has seen a spurt in voting percentage over the years yet at the end, it just barely crosses in the percentage of mid-’50s. The polling percentage in Sunday ‘s turnout was registered at 53 per cent. In 2014, the ward according to the election officials had seen a polling percentage of 59 per cent. Also Read – Odd-Even: CM seeks transport dept’s views on exemption to women, two wheelers, CNG vehiclesAccording to polling agents the polling booth witnesses more polling during the Lok Sabha elections than in municipal and the state elections. They have also expressed optimism that unlike posh areas where voting percentages are mostly dismal. While the information of Virat casting his vote from the Pine Crest school began to be circulated widely it was only after the mid-afternoon that the voting actually picked up. What led the voter’s turnout were the young voters residing in the area. The election commission of Haryana further tried to cash in on increasing the voting percentage by encouraging them to have a selfie from the same stand where earlier Kohli had posed with the inked finger. There was also a separate pink booth that was designated in the polling station to encourage women, voters.
OSU redshirt-senior kicker Kyle Clinton (39) punts the ball during the first day of fall practice Aug. 4 at the Woody Hayes Athletic Center in Columbus.Credit: Tim Moody / Sports editorIn the Ohio State football team meeting room, a sign details the Buckeyes’ “plan to win.”The plan lists playing great defense first, followed by winning the turnover battle, scoring in the red zone and winning the kicking game.That plan was designed to put the Buckeyes in a position to win Big Ten and national titles, and that doesn’t have to change after senior quarterback Braxton Miller suffered a season-ending injury Monday.Senior tight end Jeff Heuerman confirmed that those plans haven’t changed, adding that the team knows exactly what it has to do.“We’ve just got to compete for championships,” Heuerman said Wednesday.Senior cornerback Doran Grant reiterated the words of Heuerman, saying the expectations at a place like OSU never change.“We’re the Ohio State Buckeyes, and we’ve got to get there,” Grant said.OSU coach Urban Meyer said Miller’s injury — which he said is a torn labrum in the signal caller’s throwing shoulder — caused a “devastating” moment on the practice field. However, the team has come back strong since then, he added.Meyer went so far as to say Wednesday morning — when the Buckeyes’ participated in their 20th practice this fall — was arguably the best practice any of his teams have had since his staff arrived in Columbus.“Really impressed,” the third-year OSU coach said. “The energy, the speed; I think they see the light at the end of the tunnel, so it was a very, very good day.”Meyer said moving forward without Miller is a “huge test” for his team, but the players have been up to the challenge so far.While Miller did account for 44 percent of OSU’s offense last season, Meyer said the most important thing right now is getting his team ready — no matter who is on the field. He said a quarterback is an “important cog” in the team, but there is more than that to winning football games.“One thing our team is pretty good at, and I’ve gotten better at, is worrying about the moment,” Meyer said. “And the moment is getting a team ready.”While redshirt-freshman J.T. Barrett has been penciled in to Miller’s previously set-in-stone spot, players on the defensive side of the ball know they have to step up just as much as the offense.“Play great defense” is No. 1 on OSU’s plan to win, after all.“On the field, playing, we just have to get the job done,” Grant said. “We have our job to do.”Senior linebacker Curtis Grant, who is entering his second season as a starter on the Buckeye defense, said the injury to Miller doesn’t have to mean more pressure for the defense.He said that adding pressure on oneself can lead to a decreased quality of play on the field. At the end of the day, Curtis Grant said the Buckeye defense just has to keep doing what they always do.“We still go out there and have fun and play the game,” he said. “Because that’s what we’re here for.”Doran Grant said the OSU defense knows it has to step up, but that doesn’t necessarily stem from Miller’s injury.In 2013, the Buckeye defense gave up 5,284 yards of total offense, including 3,752 yards through the air. Those numbers, especially coming on the heels of two consecutive losses to the end the season, are considered subpar by some for the famed Silver Bullets defense.“I mean, we have to take it to another level just coming back from last season,” Doran Grant said of the team’s defensive outlook this fall. “That’s just something we have to do.”Doran Grant said the team will head into the new season with a chip on its shoulder, but has to ignore any criticism coming from the outside to find the desired success.Playing great defense is certainly still in the plans for OSU, as are winning the turnover battle, scoring in the red zone and winning the kicking game.Things will certainly be different for OSU in a full season without Miller, but the Buckeyes don’t think that has to change their ceiling in 2014.OSU’s schedule is set to begin Aug. 30 against Navy at M&T Bank Stadium in Baltimore. Kickoff is scheduled for noon.
Germany boss Joachim Low feels that it’s very unlikely that Mesut Ozil will ever retract his decision to retire from international footballThe Arsenal playmaker announced his retirement following Germany’s disastrous World Cup campaign that saw them eliminated at the group stages.Ozil cited German Football Federation (DFB) president Reinhard Grindel’s discrimination and “incompetence” as one of his main reasons for leaving the national side.The 29-year-old did suggest though that he may make a comeback if the “feeling of racism and disrespect” from the DFB disappears.But Low says his gone and that’s it.“In my view, Mesut Ozil has clearly declared his retirement and closed the door by himself with that, so a comeback is not a topic,” he told Sport Bild, via SportsKeeda.Top 5 Bundesliga players to watch during the weekend Tomás Pavel Ibarra Meda – September 11, 2019 With the international activity cooling down for the next month, we go back to the Bundesliga’s Top 5 players to watch next weekend.The German…Low revealed last week that he has not been able to talk to Ozil since his announcement.“Mesut did not call me, not to this very day,” he said.“I tried to reach him several times in the past two weeks, via text message, via phone. Mesut has decided to take this path. I must accept it.“Ozil has been my player for nine years. We’ve experienced a lot together. A few lows, but more highs. We’ve won the World Cup. This will still stay forever.“I am still of the opinion that he was one of the best players we had in Germany in the last 20, 30 years.“One day, we’ll have a conversation. I would have wished for him to inform me personally, and I was disappointed at first.”
Erkeneff: “We are communicating with the Department of Education, and are hearing the cut will come from under-funding K-12 Education Foundation Formula, not reducing the Base Student Allocation (BSA) value as some media is reporting. This is significant to us because of the way the BSA corresponds to the minimum and maximum range the Borough can contribute to K-12 education. In contrast, under-funding the foundation formula and keeping the BSA intact would not reduce the range the Borough can fund to education.” University of Alaska system President Jim Johnsen said the system faces a cut of more than $130 million, which could force layoffs of up to 1,300 people and the elimination of programs. Erkeneff said there was some confusion with the information provided on how those cuts will be determined, but that the district is ready for a number of scenarios for the budget possibilities. The current plan calls for cutting roughly $310 million from the state Department of Education and Early Childhood Development from the department’s current $1.3 billion budget. According to Kenai Peninsula Borough School District Communications Liaison Pegge Erkeneff, the budget documentation made available to this point does not give the district enough detail to determine the amounts specific to the Kenai Peninsula. Erkeneff: “Analyzing information that we have that’s available there’s not enough information right now for the district to specifically what the impact will be to the Kenai. That’s because there is still some confusion with details that have been released.” Facebook0TwitterEmailPrintFriendly分享Governor Mike Dunleavy released an amended FY20 budget on Wednesday. The budget proposes a significant reduction to education funding throughout the state. It’s unknown at this time how those cuts would impact the Kenai Peninsula campus.
Concurrent with this project, ENSTAR Natural Gas Company is planning to replace their steel distribution lines with flexible HDPE lines. With input from the community and the City of Kenai, a final decision was reached to place the pedestrian pathway along the right side (river side) of Beaver Loop Road. According to the DOT website there will be new right turn lanes added at Bridge Access Road and Kenai Spur Highway. The project is needed because the roadway, ditches, and culverts have deteriorated and require frequent spot repairs, according to the City of Kenai.The improvements will include; new pavement in areas where there are dips and bumps in the roadway, spot repairs will be made to the underlying road subgrade to provide for a smoother longer lasting pavement, a new intersection lighting at Barbara Dr., Angler Dr./Cone Ave., Ames Rd., and Dolchok Ln., and will also include designs for a pedestrian pathway. Facebook0TwitterEmailPrintFriendly分享The Department of Transportation and the City of Kenai have officially begun improvements to the Beaver Loop Road area as well as the construction of the pedestrian pathway project.
U.S. Digital Sponsored Magazines to Report “Unique Opens” on December 2017 AAM Reports When the delivery of digital magazine issues are sponsored by third-party companies, magazine publishers may report the copies as “digital sponsored” subscriptions or single-copy sales on AAM reports. The AAM board approved a change that applies to only U.S. magazine publishers, which will require them to prove that the issue was delivered and opened by the consumer, starting with July 2017 issues. Editor’s note: The original article on this Alliance for Audited Media rule change contained a series of misconceptions about what classes of digital magazine circulation were actually affected. In the interest of accuracy, we’ve provided the AAM’s original announcement below. The Alliance for Audited Media (AAM) announced yesterday a trio of new initiatives stemming from the latest meeting of its board of directors — among them, a rule change requiring publishers to prove “unique opens” of those digital magazines whose delivery is sponsored by a third-party company. View the full announcement from the AAM below. In connection with this change, AAM recently certified ValueMags—a platform that fulfills digital sponsored magazine subscriptions—to ensure the platform tracks “unique opens” in a way that is consistent with industry guidelines and best practices as well as AAM magazine reporting criteria. The certification helps fast-track AAM audits for magazines that use ValueMags to deliver their sponsored issues.
IBTimes VideoRelated VideosMore videos Play VideoPlayMute0:00/0:00Loaded: 0%0:00Progress: 0%Stream TypeLIVE0:00?Playback Rate1xChaptersChaptersDescriptionsdescriptions off, selectedSubtitlessubtitles settings, opens subtitles settings dialogsubtitles off, selectedAudio TrackFullscreenThis is a modal window.The media could not be loaded, either because the server or network failed or because the format is not supported.Beginning of dialog window. Escape will cancel and close the window.TextColorWhiteBlackRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentBackgroundColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyOpaqueSemi-TransparentTransparentWindowColorBlackWhiteRedGreenBlueYellowMagentaCyanTransparencyTransparentSemi-TransparentOpaqueFont Size50%75%100%125%150%175%200%300%400%Text Edge StyleNoneRaisedDepressedUniformDropshadowFont FamilyProportional Sans-SerifMonospace Sans-SerifProportional SerifMonospace SerifCasualScriptSmall CapsReset restore all settings to the default valuesDoneClose Modal DialogEnd of dialog window. COPY LINKAD Loading … Top Indian politician Jayalalithaa Jayaram, Chief Minister of Tamil Nadu, dies aged 68 Close Update: The chief minister of the southern Indian state of Tamil Nadu, known to many as Amma or mother, Jayalalithaa Jayaram has died aged 68 after suffering a cardiac arrest on Sunday 4 December. The former actress who was in a critical condition and on life support died at the Apollo Hospitals in Chennai. She was admitted to the hospital on 22 September after suffering from fever and dehydration.Original story: The popular leader of Indias southern Tamil Nadu state is in critical condition after suffering a heart attack. Large crowds are keeping a vigil outside the hospital where doctors are fighting to save the hugely popular – but highly controversial – former film actress.Jayalalithaa Jayaraman, 68, went into cardiac arrest on Sunday night, and underwent surgery at the Apollo Hospital in the state capital Chennai where she had been staying since being admitted with a severe respiratory ailment in September. She remains critical and on life support systems. Richard Beale, an intensive care specialist and part of Jayalalithaas medical team, said the situation is grave.Authorities in the southern state increased security around Chennai to prevent her worried supporters from creating public disorder. Police were deployed across the state to ensure security out of fear that her death could trigger widespread violence and riots.Popularly known as Amma, or Mother in the Tamil language, she had a successful film career that included appearances in nearly 150 movies.She has had three stints as chief minister of Tamil Nadu, the latest of which began in May 2011. She was introduced to politics by her cinema screen partner, MG Ramachandran, another actor-turned politician. She remains hugely popular despite being jailed more than once for corruption.The US consulate in Chennai warned US citizens to avoid areas of demonstrations and be vigilant because of the chance of violence. The death of Ramachandran, or MGR as Jayalalithaas mentor was known, sparked looting and rioting across Tamil Nadu by his grief-stricken supporters in 1987.Visit the International Business Times UK Pictures page to see our latest picture galleries.
A youth dressed as the Hindu god Krishna takes part in a procession during celebrations for the Janmashtami festival in Dhaka on 14 August, 2017. Photo: AFPThe Hindu community of the country observed Janmashtami, marking the birth of lord Krishna, on Monday with due religious fervour, says UNB.According to Hindu religion, lord Vishnu incarnated in the universe as lord Krishna in the prison of Raja Kangsa on this day, the eighth of “Shukla Pakkha” (bright fortnight) in the month of Bangla calendar Bhadra in Dwapara Yuga to protect “Dharma” from the hands of devils.Sri Krishna was born to Devaki and her husband Vasudeva in Mathura to which Krishna’s parents belonged.Hindu community members brought out processions in the capital, divisional cities and district towns displaying the eventful life of Krishna and held other programmes on the occasion.Different socio-cultural and religious organisations also observed Janmashtami with various programmes.President Abdul Hamid hosted a reception at Bangabhaban marking the day.
A worker attaches Turkish flags near the Reina nightclub by the Bosphorus, which was attacked by a gunman, in Istanbul, Turkey, 1 January, 2017. REUTERSTurkish security forces have detained over 750 people suspected of links to the Islamic State extremist group in Turkey’s biggest ever crackdown against the organisation, state media said Monday.Some 450 suspects were picked up in the initial phase of the nationwide operation on Sunday but the number held has now risen to 763, the Anadolu news agency said.It said raids took place in 29 of Turkey’s 81 provinces and documents, weapons and ammunition were also seized.The operation came just over a month after 39 people, mainly foreigners, were killed on New Year’s night when a gunman went on the rampage inside a plush Istanbul nightclub.The IS jihadist group claimed the massacre, its first clear claim for a major attack in Turkey although it had been blamed for several bombings in 2016.Turkish police have over the last few years launched numerous raids against IS suspects but a nationwide operation on this scale against the group is unprecedented.Anadolu quoted Turkey’s police directorate as saying that IS was looking to stage a “sensational action” inside the country for propaganda purposes, with media organisations seen as a possible target.No further details were given.Turkey was long accused by its Western allies of not doing enough to stop the flow of jihadists across its borders and emergence of IS cells in its own cities.Ankara denies the charges, saying it listed IS as a terror group since 2013. However, observers say Turkey has markedly stepped up its actions against the group in the last few months.Police captured alive the suspected Reina nightclub attacker, Abdulgadir Masharipov, an Uzbek national, on 16 January after more than two weeks on the run and observers believe he may provide crucial intelligence.According to media reports, Masharipov had also considered attacking Istanbul’s main Taksim Square as well as the offices of the opposition Cumhuriyet newspaper.
Turkish president Recep Tayyip Erdogan announces Turkish Cabinet after taking oath as first president under new government system, in Ankara, on 9 July 2018. Photo: AFPPresident Recep Tayyip Erdogan on Monday took on greater powers than any Turkish leader for decades as he was sworn in for a second presidential term, naming his son-in-law to the key post of finance minister in a revamped cabinet.Erdogan, who has already transformed Turkey in 15 years of rule, took his oath of office in parliament under the new presidential system denounced by opponents as a one-man regime.Describing the monumental change as a “new beginning”, he vowed at a later ceremony at his vast Ankara presidential palace to be the president of all 81 million Turks.”We have come not to be master but to be servant of our people,” he added.He then unveiled the first cabinet under the new system, appointing his son-in-law Berat Albayrak, 40, to the crucial post of finance minister, in a move that appeared to rattle markets.Army chief of staff General Hulusi Akar joined the government as defence minister but Mevlut Cavusoglu kept the post of foreign minister.Fuat Oktay, a former head of Turkey’s emergencies agency, has been named as the sole vice president, a newly-created post.- ‘One-man regime’ -The new system, which dispenses with the office of prime minister, was agreed in a bitterly-fought 2017 referendum narrowly won by the “Yes” camp. The issue continues to polarise public opinion in Turkey.”A partisan one-man regime starts officially today,” said the opposition Cumhuriyet newspaper.But the pro-government daily Yeni Safak hailed it as an “historic day”, saying: “One page is closing in Turkish history and a new page is opening.”The president now sits at the top of a vertical power structure marked by a slimmed-down government with 16 ministries instead of 26 and multiple bodies reporting to him.In one of the most significant changes, the EU affairs ministry, set up in 2011 to oversee Turkey’s faltering bid to join the bloc, is being subsumed into the foreign ministry.Prime Minister Binali Yildirim now goes down in history as the 27th and final holder of the post in Turkey. He is expected to become speaker of the new parliament.- ‘Leader of multi-polar world’ -The transition ceremony was overshadowed by a deadly train derailment in northwest Turkey on Sunday that killed 24 people and injured hundreds. Erdogan said that folk dancing and a laser show had been cancelled as a result.Those attending included Ankara’s top allies from Africa, the Middle East and the former Soviet Union but relatively few European figures.Russian Prime Minister Dmitry Medvedev was present, in a new sign of the warm ties between Ankara and Moscow, as was Venezuelan President Nicolas Maduro, regarded with disdain by Washington but an ally of Erdogan.In a tweet, Maduro hailed Erdogan as a “friend of Venezuela and leader of the new multi-polar world.”But Erdogan faces immediate challenges posed by Ankara’s faltering bid to join the EU and tensions between the United States and its NATO ally.Erdogan will this week immediately turn to foreign policy, visiting northern Cyprus and Azerbaijan, followed by more challenging encounters at a NATO summit in Brussels where he will meet US President Donald Trump and other leaders.- Lira pressured -The markets were keeping a close eye on the finance ministry, keen to see a steady hand at the helm in a fast-growing economy dogged by double-digit inflation and a widening current account deficit.The appointment of Albayrak, the husband of Erdogan’s elder daughter Esra and formerly energy minister, came as a surprise, with no place for Mehmet Simsek, the former deputy prime minister for the economy trusted by markets.The Turkish lira lost 3.5 percent in value on the news to trade at 4.73 lira to the dollar.Ruhsar Pekcan, one of just two women in the cabinet, was named as trade minister.Hardline Interior Minister Suleyman Soylu keeps his job, while Akar’s appointment as defence minister was also a surprise and it remains unclear who will replace him as army chief of staff.The AKP failed to win a majority in legislative elections and will need support from its allies in the right-wing Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) which could push it into more hardline policies.Erdogan has also pledged to end the state of emergency that has been in place since the failed July 2016 coup and which has seen the biggest purge in the history of modern Turkey.One day ahead of the inauguration, 18,632 public sector employees were ordered dismissed, including thousands of soldiers and police officers in a new crackdown.
Citation: Researchers take new approach to determine historical population fluctuations (2015, April 7) retrieved 18 August 2019 from https://phys.org/news/2015-04-approach-historical-population-fluctuations.html SNP is a DNA sequence variation that occurs commonly among a given population. Scientists have been using information read from it to trace lineage and to follow population fluctuations over time. In this new effort, the researchers used a different math technique on DNA data obtained from nine populations included in the 1000 Genome Project. Rather than using techniques that rely on predefined population models, the pair of researchers instead came up with a model-flexible method that allows for using SNP spectra data to estimate population size during different periods in history.Using their technique, the researchers were able to show population bottlenecks (sudden sharp reductions in population size) going back 200,000 years. They found, for example, that there was a population bottleneck in Europe approximately 20 to 30,000 years ago (though it did not include people living in Finland). They also found a bottleneck in Africa occurred 100 to 200,000 years ago in Africa.The two researchers describe their method as a multi-epoch model that is similar to a skyline plot in that it can be used to calculate the likelihood of a given frequency spectrum—and it allows for treating each DNA sequence as an independent locus, which they noted reduces computational load and makes it possible to study hundreds of individuals, which of course makes historical population estimating much more accurate.For each of the nine populations studied, the duo created 200 frequency spectra which led to a stairway plot based on median population size for a given period in history. They report that their technique revealed that all of the populations that were not Africa based experienced severe drops in population between 50 and 70,000 years ago. The population in Finland stood as a different however, in that they had a separate drop between 10 and 20,000 years ago, as opposed to the rest of Europe which saw its major drop approximately ten thousand years later. The researchers suggest this was due to early Finnish people separating themselves from the rest of Europe. They note also a sharp African population drop approximately 50 to 70,000 years ago, and then again 20 to 30,000 years ago. (Phys.org)—A pair of researches with the University of Texas has used a new method to infer historical human population size fluctuations based on Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) data. In their paper published in the journal Nature Genetics, the team describes how they applied a technique they call a stairway plot to SNP data to uncover human population fluctuations going back hundreds of thousands of years. Explore further New genetic evidence resolves origins of modern Japanese This document is subject to copyright. Apart from any fair dealing for the purpose of private study or research, no part may be reproduced without the written permission. The content is provided for information purposes only. Journal information: Nature Genetics Illustration of the multi-epoch model. Left, a coalescent tree with corresponding coalescent times. Right, an illustration of how the population size (width of each rectangle) changes over multiple epochs, with each epoch coinciding with a coalescent event. Credit: Nature Genetics (2015) doi:10.1038/ng.3254 © 2015 Phys.org More information: Exploring population size changes using SNP frequency spectra, Nature Genetics (2015) DOI: 10.1038/ng.3254AbstractInferring demographic history is an important task in population genetics. Many existing inference methods are based on predefined simplified population models, which are more suitable for hypothesis testing than exploratory analysis. We developed a novel model-flexible method called stairway plot, which infers changes in population size over time using SNP frequency spectra. This method is applicable for whole-genome sequences of hundreds of individuals. Using extensive simulation, we demonstrate the usefulness of the method for inferring demographic history, especially recent changes in population size. We apply the method to the whole-genome sequence data of 9 populations from the 1000 Genomes Project and show a pattern of fluctuations in human populations from 10,000 to 200,000 years ago.